Cabinet :: Fabrication :: Stencils

There are several ways to create the look of a vintage stencil for your cabinet artwork. I’ve done it a couple of different ways, and you can make your choice based on complexity and resources available.

I typically go for a three-color design (base coat plus two stencils), in keeping with the classic style, which can also be an artistic challenge.

1) Original method. Vintage machines had their paint applied by spraying, stippling or flicking with a brush, usually masked with some type of stencil. This would have been a rigid, thick cardboard paper (or thin wood), with patterns cut into them, and intended for multiple use, possibly hundreds of times.

Advantages: Multiple use (as in production), and has a classic look.
Disadvantages: Investment to make, not as sharp or modern looking.

2) Hand Mask Method. This is as simple as it sounds: use masking tape and paper to create your stencil directly on the cabinet wood. For smaller details, I usually print out a template I’ve designed on the computer. The larger elements I would freehand with some scale drawing for reference. This works best if using mostly straight lines or slight curves. Something more complicated would need a more elaborate method.

Advantage: Cheap.
Disadvantages: One-time use (possibly not repeatable), not as precise.

Hand-made Cabinet Stencil

Creating a stencil by hand, using masking tape and a printed template. Base is white, first color dark blue, third color orange.

3) Pre-cut Stencil. This is usually a one-time use vinyl stencil, and will cost about $150. This is a method to use if you have a very specific pattern in mind, and usually requires a vector artwork drawn on a computer. You might be able to find a local company that can do vinyl cutting, or use a company like Twisted Pins that makes one-time stencils specifically for pinball machines.

Advantages: Very precise complex shapes, exactly rendered.
Disadvantages: Cost, and probably will only get one use.

Pre-cut Custom Pinball Stencil

Using a one-time vinyl stencil to achieve complex shapes and curves. Again, base is white, first pass is dark purple, then pink.


For reference, if you are following the plans for this cabinet and head unit, here are the PNG files for the Side, Front and Head that can be used as a pattern for creating your own artwork:

Custom Pinball Side Artwork

Side art work for reference or use as a pattern.


Three-color head unit artwork for use as a pattern or reference.


Stencil for front of cabinet. If you have the vinyl cut professionally, the shop should be able to take your PNG file and convert it into vector artwork, then generate two separate stencils for a three-color design (two plus base).


Playfield :: Fabrication :: Slots

If you are going to CNC your playfield, that’s great. However, most people don’t have free access to a CNC machine, and paying someone to do the job for a one-off project may not be cost effective. So, for most of the blog, I will consider that the fabrication sections are going to be done by hand…

The second-most-difficult feature of the Playfield to create by hand is the Switch Slot (the most difficult being an Arrow Lens).  The Playfield Switch is obviously one of the most important hardware features of a Pinball Machine, since the game is essentially a continuous electro-mechanical interaction, where the Pinball activates a Switch, which in turn activates a Solenoid, which in turn impacts the Pinball, and so on, and so on.

We start with a full-size 1:1 printout of our Playfield CAD drawing, but in this example I’m just focusing on the section where the Switch Slot will be. Spot-drilling all of the features at the same time with a full-size drawing will guaranty that holes are placed correctly relative to each other. Here is the Slot creation process in detail from start to finish.

Step 1:

Spot drill both ends of the slot using a 1:1 scale printout of the Playfield CAD for reference. Then, carve a small groove from center-to-center to keep the next set of pilot drill holes in line.

Custom Pinball Switch Slot

Spot drill the ends of the slot, then cut grove.

Step 2:

Establish the center line with an X-acto knife, then drill a set of pilot holes in the groove. Use the finish drill size (.198″) as a visual guide to set the spacing.

Custom Pinball Switch Slot

Drill additional holes in the center groove, using the finishing drill bit as a guide.

Step 3:

Once the spot drills are finished, follow-up with the finish drill (.198″) in each pilot hole.

Custom Pinball Switch Slot

Drill to final size using pilot guide holes.

Step 4:

Using the same X-acto, establish the outside walls of the slot with clean cut, using the outer diameter as a guide. Then come back with angled cuts until the slot is clear. Flip over the the other side to complete the slot.

Custom Pinball Switch Slot

Clean up edges with X-acto knife.


Playfield :: Design :: Reference

My philosophy is that Pinball is an art form, and a knowledge of current and vintage machines is essential to understanding the “grammar” of this artistic communication. Aesthetic is said to be “Content put into an overall Structure in order to create Meaning”. In the case of Pinball As Art, the content is our flippers, bumpers and targets; the structure is our Playfield geometry and rule set. Speaking the language of pinball means understanding how these elements have been used in the past, and how they work together to create game-play.

Here are four different Playfields that were designed and fabricated within the last three years. I’m posting links to DXFs, SVGs and VP simulations, for use as templates or reference for your own design. Two of these were recently on display at the Seattle Pinball Museum show featuring custom Pinball machines…

Jupiter Crush : 

Click to view the VP simulation, or Right-Click to download the DXF file or SVG file for this table.

This Playfield was designed to be reminiscent of tables from the late 70’s and early 80’s, with features similar to games like Bally’s “Skate Ball”, “Rolling Stones” and “Harlem Globetrotters”. Every game should have a hook or twist that makes it unique, and this game features a Negative Bumper that subtracts points when lit. Reseting the bumper requires a skill-shot to the lower left U-turn.

Jupiter Crush custom pinball machine

Completed Playfield with artwork, mechanisms, lights and plastics, next to the DXF used to fabricate the this table.


Retro Spa: 

Click to view the VP simulation, or Right-Click to download the DXF file or SVG file for this table.

Wide-body games were an attempt to make pinball more exciting by adding more features, but unfortunately most of these games didn’t make good use of the extra space. The engineering challenge for this Playfield was to maintain all of the features and game-play of a classic wide-body, while proving it could be done in a standard-size machine. As an added twist, early artwork for the classic game that was rejected 40 years ago was used for reference on the Playfield and Backglass.

Retro Spa custom pinball

Retro Spa completed table with DXF for reference.


Tattoo Mystique: 

Click to view the VP simulation, or Right-Click to download the DXF file or SVG file for this table.

This Playfield is meant to be reminiscent of games like “Fathom” and “Blackout”. The simple set of rules is deceptively difficult, with game-theory elements of risk-and-reward designed to thwart those players who are only out to get the high-score.

Custom Pinball Tattoo Mystique

Screenshot of simulation for Tattoo Mystique, and DXF of cutout locations.


Miss Adventure:

 Click to view the VP simulation, or Right-Click to download the DXF file or SVG file for this table.

This fourth game in the series is designed to literally “take it up a level”. It has features inspired by classics like “Fan-Tas-Tic”, “Freedom” and “Silverball Mania”, as well as a lower level similar to games like “CFTBL” or “Black Hole”. This lower level is actually intended to be a “virtual” Playfield that will have many different features that can change on-the-fly.

The upper level is also meant to be changeable to keep the game fresh and interesting. The symmetry of the ramps was chosen to allow maximum flexibility of future upper level designs.

Custom Pinball Miss Adventure

White board of Miss Adventure, with DXF.

Control :: Electronic :: Solenoid

A renewed interest in vintage pinball machines, combined with the growth of the “Maker” movement, has made this an opportune time to build your own pinball machine. Individuals all over the world have simultaneously discovered that we’re now at a technological crossroads: designing and building a pinball machine is a real possibility for the average tinkerer or hobbyist. And a cottage industry has sprung up, providing new and reproduction pinball parts, as well as electronics and control systems, that are ideal platforms for these new Pinball Artists.

The system that I have used the most, and have had the best experience with, has been the “Power Driver 16” from Multimorphic (aka

This system was originally developed to replace older stock controllers, and then evolved to allow modification to the code and thus custom control. Although the Power Driver 16 is meant to be run with a P-ROC system, you can easily connect to almost anything with a serial interface, including an Arduino. This is the approach we will be detailing here…

You will need several things to build the test system outlined:

  • A computer, with the Arduino development environment loaded. You can find it here.
  • An Arduino Uno board, available for purchase many places, including here.
  • A Multimorphic Power Driver 16, from
  • A Mini Master RS-485 level shifter, also from
  • Wiring and connectors.
  • Solenoid mechanisms (e.g. Bumpers) to be tested.

The Arduino code detailed in this post uses the Serial Monitor to control the Power Driver 16, and can be found on the download page here.

Documentation for using the Power Driver 16 can be found here, or reference the schematics and images below (to be added later).

Cabinet :: Design :: Base

There are basically three Cabinet options for a custom Pinball machine:

  • Purchase a new reproduction.
  • Find a used beater to refurbish.
  • Build new from scratch.

Any of these are good, viable options that I would recommend, but there are pros and cons with each. I’ll detail these in the order of preference…

Build From Scratch

I’ll start with the down side: It’s likely to be either more expensive or more time consuming than the other options.

Custom Pinball Cabinet

Full CAD design of custom pinball cabinet with head.

But there are some big up-sides…

  • Cheaper than buying new (but not cheaper than used).
  • Less bloat, so overall the machine can be lighter.
  • More engineering options for setting the rake angle and depth.
  • Artistic ownership of the final product.

and best of all…

  • The pride of doing it yourself.

Here is an example Cabinet design in CAD, where all the base pieces are laid out on a single 4’x8′ sheet of plywood ( 3/4″), which you can download as DXF or SVG here.

Custom Pinball Cabinet Template

All the necessary base Cabinet parts laid out on a single 4’x8′ sheet.

Hidden lines are drawn in magenta, and are there to show where a miter-lock joint will be. If you don’t have access to a router table, or don’t feel comfortable creating a miter joint, you would simply cut along two of the magenta lines and create a butt-joint. Preferably cut the side panels to preserve the flush finish on the front, which is most visible.

The large panels are cut with a circular saw, and the smaller pieces can be band saw or jig saw. Worst case, if resources are limited, it should be possible to cut all the parts out with a jig saw.

Depending on what type of wood you chose (MDF, plywood, etc), the cost of a 4’x8′ sheet is going to run about $50-$100. I recommend paying a little extra for quality, even though the finished product will be painted. Good quality plywood will end up looking better, last longer and less likely to warp.

The other cost is going to be in the hardware. You will still need to source of the components of a vintage cabinet (see below), or purchase new from a company like VirtuaPin

A new hardware kit runs about $400. Lower cost options can be found if you’re willing to lurk on eBay. But even when used, be prepared to spend on the order of $200 total for legs, coin door, side rails, lockdown bar and other hardware. If you really need a low-cost option, then best to…

Refurbish a Used Cabinet

This is a good, cheap option that has worked well in the past. However, depending on your location, an old beater cabinet could be hard to find. Best bet is to keep an eye on Craigslist and eBay, or network with local machine owners.

Almost all “standard” width Cabinets will accept a “standard” size playfield with a few modifications. Usually the lockdown bar bracket also serves as a receiver for the playfield hangar brackets. So when laying out your playfield, you may have to shift these to match your existing Cabinet hardware.

If you do go this route, try and pick up a Cabinet that has most (or all) of the hardware still attached. This would include:

  • Coin door with mechs.
  • Lockdown bar and receiver bracket.
  • Side rails.
  • Flipper buttons.
  • Leg mounting plate brackets.

I didn’t include Legs in this list because often a perfectly good cabinet might be missing the legs, and second, you will probably want to purchase a new shiny set of legs anyway. These can be found for as low as $50 for a set at places like Pinball Life.

If there are any electronics in the cabinet, you can probably re-use things like the power switch, AC cord, filter, fuse, etc. but you probably won’t need the transformer…

Later on, there will be more posts about the control system. In this section, we detail how to install all new switch-mode power electronics, which are easer, safer and lighter than the old-style transformers.

Buy a Reproduction Cabinet

There has been a renewed interest in reproduction pinball cabinets with the introduction of “Visual Pinball”. We’ll go into this more in later posts, but basically people are creating computer-based virtual pinball games, and installing large flat-screen monitors into cabinets for a more realistic game playing experience. We can take advantage of this new phenomenon and cottage industry that has grown up around it.

The most popular off-the-shelf reproduction cabinet is made by VirtuaPin.

In the DIY category, you can find cabinets in the $300 – $500 range depending on the finish. On top of this, you will need a hardware kit that runs about $400. So we are talking about a total of around $700 – $900, but bear in mind that the hardware is about half of that cost, and you will still need to buy that with a custom cabinet (although maybe cheaper on eBay).

Playfield :: Fabrication :: Blank

The standard Playfield is fabricated from 1/2″ plywood, and is 42″ x 20.25″.

There are many types and sources for plywood, but unfortunately the actual type specifically used for vintage Pinball Playfields is no longer available (see this useful  FAQ from CPR), so the best solution is to try and find something better than the original. You will probably see a lot of options for cores and laminates, and it can be confusing. A lot of the information is good, but not very useful if you’re on a budget or don’t have access to lumber yards or big suppliers nearby.

I’ve tried several options, and luckily one of the best ones is cabinet grade plywood from the local hardware store. But here’s the key: it needs to have lots of plys for stability. This is what will keep your Playfield flat, straight and warp-free in the years to come. Look for at least a 9-ply count, bearing in mind that the surface veneers count as plys but are slightly thinner. Birch is not hard to find, works well and looks great. Another advantage is that your local hardware store is likely to have this in a 2’x4′ sheet size, so you are not wasting wood or money.

Plywood for Custom Pinball

Birch veneer, 1/2″ thick nine-ply cabinet-grade plywood from the local hardware store.

Most vintage tables used Maple top with a hard core (and no voids). If you have the resources, this is still an option, but I personally think the additional cost isn’t worth it. For short-run production… maybe, but we’re talking Pinball as Art here, and designing something for production would take away from that.

To get started, here’s a Playfield blank based on vintage 70’s-80’s Bally hardware. It is similar (or the same) as Stern and Williams from that era, and parts are easy to find:

Custom Pinball Template

Bally blank Playfield template.

You can find a link here to a DXF and SVG version, for use in a CAD or Illustration program respectively.

I usually will purchase a sheet of 2’x4′ plywood and use a T-square to measure out 42″ x 20.25″. Take a look at the surface of both sides first, and decide which will give the best finish on top. I use a bandsaw, but a circular or table saw will work for these initial cuts.

Second step is to cut out the lower edge notches, which are clearance for the shooter (right) and cabinet flipper buttons. Again, here I would print out your CAD layout 1:1 scale and tape to the surface as a guide. You will want to use a band saw or jig saw for this, and to make it look really clean I use a 1/2″ Forstner bit in the corners first to establish the right radius.

The rest of the Outhole Kicker cutouts can be done the same time you’re doing the lenses and other hardware openings.

Playfield :: Fabrication :: Lenses

A majority of the holes you will cut into your custom Playfield will be for Lenses, so this is how we will kick off the actual fabrication of a blank table… Vintage lenses come in several standard sizes, typically 1″, 3/4″ and 5/8″. Rollover targets are also treated as lenses, and are 1 1/8″. Newer games added other sizes and shapes, but we will focus on these, plus a couple of vintage Arrow Lenses. All standard lenses are 1/4″ thick, which is an important feature for fabrication and installation.

Custom Playfield CAD File

Screenshot showing several lens sizes with retaining ledge visible.

Above is a screenshot from a CAD program showing several lens sizes with the retaining ledge visible.

You can find a selection of sizes from many different suppliers, but here are a few examples from Marco Specialties:

Notice that there are a variety of options aside from just color. There are transparent, opaque, star patterns or just plain versions. A couple of  other important things to note:

  • The decision on which lens to use (color vs white, transparent vs opaque, star vs flat) is going to be largely based on what type of lighting you will have, and what the specific application is. I prefer to use LED bulbs under lenses, so I typically go with White or Clear. The vinyl Playfield overlay is translucent, so the final color can be chosen later. If you are using incandescent bulbs, it would be better to use a colored lens. For lenses that have lettering on top (not uncommon), I like plain opaque White. When an indicator really needs to stand out, I go for a transparent colored lens with a star pattern, and same color LED bulb underneath. The end effect looks great and has a vintage feel.
  • All lenses have a letter (e.g. “A”, see above for more examples) molded into the top surface. These have to be removed by sanding. I typically glue the lenses in slightly “proud”, and then sand down the whole Playfield as part of the finishing process. Alternatively, you could pre-sand the them on a belt sander, but the results are sometimes uneven.
Custom Pinball Lens Shapes

CAD drawing of various standard lens shapes, available here.

Here are the steps to drill and insert lenses:

  • Print out your Playfield. This needs to be done full-size on paper using a large-format printer. I do this at Kinko’s or FedEx, and it’s very cheap for black and white.


Custom Playfield Fabrication

Apply full-scale CAD layout to blank Playfield.

  • Dimple with spot drill. I typically use a #43 (0.89″) bit, which is the standard pilot size for a #4 screw. Apply your Playfield CAD printout to your blank, and drill through your plywood at the center location of all lenses.
Custom Pinball Fabrication

Spot drill a pilot hole o guide the Forstner bit.

  • Forstner bit front side. Using a “Forstner” bit the same size as your lens, drill down slightly less than 1/4″. I usually make a jig in each lens diameter to gauge depth. When I feel I’m close to the final depth, I’ll slow down the RPMs and stop several times to check with the gauge.
Forstner Bit for Playfield Lens

Drill pocket 1/4″ deep on front side, check with lens jig.

  • Forstner bit back side. After doing all the fronts (usually one size at a time), flip to the back side an use a bit 1/8″ smaller than the lens diameter. This provides a lip or ledge for the lens to sit on. Coming in from the back does two things: you’re using the existing spot drill hole so there’s less drift, and the surface edges will be cleaner since they don’t risk being punched out from the front.
Custom Pinball Playfield Insert

Flip over and drill from the back with 1/8″ smaller Forstner bit.

  • Glue all lenses in. I typically use wood glue in case of mistakes, but you can be more aggressive and use clear epoxy. Use a finger from the back side to level and prevent the lens from dropping to far down. Let the glue dry… then…
  • Sand. I start with about 180 grit to get the plastic lenses flush, then switch to 220 then 320.

There are other processes later that will seal and clear coat the lenses to bring back their shine, and we’ll cover that later…

Playfield :: Hardware :: Bumpers

One of the most ubiquitous pieces of Playfield hardware is the Bumper.

It has at times gone by the name “Thumper”, “Jet” or “Pop Bumper”, but when people say “Bumper” they are generally referring to the switch-and- coil-activated mechanical Bumper that is standard to most modern games. At one time these Bumpers were passive, with just a rubber ring and a switch to add to the score, hence the need to have names to distinguish active Bumpers. But by the time of Pinball’s peak in the mid-80’s, most all Bumpers were active, except for a few notable games like “Silverball Mania” or “Space Invaders”.

Most machines typically have three Bumpers, but almost any combination of number or location you can think of has probably been tried. This is where the grammar and language of Pinball comes in…

If you are unfamiliar with all the Bumper variations that have been used it the past, check out the Internet Pinball Database (IPDB), and the reproductions section of the Visual Pinball (VP) website. When you design your game, you should be aware of what other games have used similar layouts. Even if you are not trying to emulate or reference vintage tables, there will always be some comparison and connotation associated with them. It’s important to understand this grammar so as to not create some unintended meaning.

The “standard” Bumper has undergone some evolution to make things easier for manufacturing, assembly and repair, even though the basic components remain the same. Here are representative examples:

  • Evolution #1 : Added Nutplate: The earliest improvement was to add a plate with pre-tapped holes.

Gottlieb Thumper

  • Evolution #2 : Combined Plate and Switch: The second improvement was a plate with built-in mount for a spoon switch. This unit could be built as a sub-assembly prior to installation.

Stern Thumper

  • Evolution #3 : Molded Plastic : An incremental improvement to number #2, this was probably a cost savings, but also presented a cleaner fit and finish on the top play surface.

Bally Thumper

Any of these would be a good choice for a custom pinball machine. You would want to make the decision early on, however, since the Playfield would have to be drilled to accept the specific hardware. Most likely, you will base this on what’s available in your stock or on eBay.

It’s much cheaper to buy a used Bumper unit, and if necessary rebuild with new top-side parts for cosmetic considerations. A used unit that already has the brackets, coil, metal ring assembly and the switch, can be re-built to like-new condition with the following parts:

Bumper re-build parts

These can be found at Marco Specialties or Pinball Life:

And if you decide to start fresh instead of rebuilding, you can find this as an assembly:

Here’s what the top-side parts look like assembled:

Assembled Bumper Parts

If your assembly already has a base, you probably will not need the Playfield insert. These parts can then be added to the rest of the sub-assembly, making the installation and future repair that much easier.


  • CAD diagram of EV2 version of Bumper, showing Playfield cutout. You can right click here and “save as”, or click through to preview in most browsers. Keep this item as a template in your custom pinball artwork file, then import into Inkscape or other drawing programs.

Playfield :: Hardware :: Apron

To kickoff the Playfield section of the custom pinball blog, I’ll start with something relatively easy: the Playfield Apron.

This will be very important later, as the dimensions of the chosen Apron will have an impact on the table layout. Most Aprons are standard width, but there will always be slight variations that will have to be accounted for or modified. Since Playfield geometry is defined from the bottom-up, it’s critical to get the Apron mechanicals established before laying down the rest of the hardware.

As with most posts, I’ll will try to outline two or three fabrication methods to chose from… And will post links later to CAD or graphics files for download.

Step 1:

Decide New Or Used. The Apron is one of those pieces of standardized hardware (like Thumpers, Drop Targets and Flippers) that you will want to source from either a parted-out machine or buy new. Since we are customizing here, it makes sense to find a used one that would otherwise be thrown out. For this purpose, we check eBay (try searching simple keywords like “pinball apron”). You should be able to find a rusted-but-decent one for around $15, minus shipping. To be consistent with this blog, get a “standard” size one, not a “wide body”.

Step 2:

Sand, Clean and Paint. I use an orbital sander, which I recommend, since you will want to sand all the way down to the bare metal. I start with a medium grit disk, around 180, to take off paint as quickly as possible, then 220 and 320. For this first pass at 180 grit, you don’t want to use too much pressure, since any gouges will have to be sanded out later or will show up in the finished product. Once most of the paint is off, wipe clean with a rag and follow up with 220, and then again with 320. Wipe down and clean with isopropyl, then use Rust-oleum or some similar spray enamel in the color of your choice. If you’re going for a light color, best to use a white primer, and sand lightly with 320 (by hand) between coats.

Orbital Sander

This orbital sander has been a good choice.

Step 3:

Add Artwork. Here’s where we come to some alternate fabrication choices based on what look you’re after and what tools you have at your disposal…

  • My first example is probably the easiest and yields decent results. If you have a computer and printer, you can create your artwork in a vector graphics program (like Inkscape, which is free) and print out onto gloss sticker sheet paper. The Apron in the photos below was done this way. Before applying to the painted surface, I spray the paper stickers with a matte acrylic designed for sealing artwork, sometimes called a fixative. This gives the paper a longer lasting finish.


Rusted vintage Apron that was being thrown out.


Same Apron, after first coat of paint.


Finished Apron with graphics applied.

  • Second example is a little more complicated, but gives professional-looking results if you have access to the equipment. Using a vinyl cutter (like a Cameo Silhouette), your same vector artwork colors can be cut individually and stacked to give the impression of a silk-screen process. The results are cleaner and will probably last longer. The example in the photo below was done with the vinyl cutting method.


Old apron sanded and cleaned.


Painted with high gloss enamel.


Finished apron with vinyl decals applied.


We are going to walk you through step-by-step the compete process of How to Build a Pinball Machine.

Here’s what to expect from this Blog…

  • Heart and Soul of the Pinball Machine: Designing the Playfield.
    • Finding inspiration in vintage games.
    • Understanding the Grammar of Pinball.
    • Simulating and testing the physics of the game.
    • Putting the design into CAD.
    • Artwork.
  • Fabrication: A How-To Guide.
    • Finding resources.
    • What materials to use.
    • What tools are needed and how to use them.
    • Tips and tricks.
  • The Control System: Making the Machine Work.
    • Open source Arduino code to control the game.
    • How to scan and read switches.
    • Interfacing with off-the-shelf solenoid drivers.
    • Controlling displays and lights.
  • The Pinball Cabinet: Framing a Work of Art.
    • Decisions. New, used or build your own?
    • Open source plans for building a cabinet.
    • How-to guide on cabinet stencils.
    • Putting it all together.

The information in each blog post will be based on insight gained from designing three different machines over the last couple of years. Often we will present two or three different ways of doing things, allowing one to choose the methods that best match the resources and goals of the individual pinball project.

Stay tuned…